Coastal Restoration Trust of New Zealand

Coastal Dune Ecosystem Reference Database

Wave process and beach responses on a coarse gravel delta Thesis

Stephen, W.J.M.
Journal / Source
Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
sambar deer, Cervus unicolor, diet, pine, flax, copper, selenium
In Manawatu, sambar deer cause damage to pine forests by stripping bark off trees. In August-September of 1994 and 1995 samples of rumen contents and liver were collected from sambar to determine the incidence of pine in the diet and the trace element (copper, selenium, cobalt) status of these animals. Unidentified grasses were the predominant plants in 34 of the 40 rumen content samples. In the remaining samples, flax (Phormium tenax) predominated in three and pine (Pinus spp.) in three. Pine needles and/or stems were found in 25 samples, and constituted more than 10% of the dry weight of 11 samples, but pine bark was found in only three samples. The levels of selenium (>850 nmol/kg) and vitamin B12 (>220 nmol/kg) in the 22 liver samples would be considered adequate for sheep, red deer, and cattle and probably also for sambar. The liver copper levels were inadequate (